|Knowledge Areas||Major Processes||Primary Inputs||Tools & Techniques||Primary Outputs|
|Human Resource Planning||Identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships as well as creating the staffing management plan||1. Enterprise Environmental Factors2. Organizational Process Assets
3. Project management plan
.Activity resource requirements
|1. Organization charts and position descriptions2. Networking
3. Organizational theory.
|1. Roles and responsibilities2. Project Organization charts
3. Staffing management plan
|Acquire Project Team||Obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project.||1. Enterprise Environmental Factors2. Organizational Process Assets
3. Roles and responsibilities
4. Project Organization charts
5. Staffing management plan
|1. Pre-assignment2. Negotiation
4. Virtual teams
|1. Project Staff Assignments2. Resource Availability
3. Staffing management plan (updates)
|Develop Project Team||Improving the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance.||1. Project Staff Assignments2. Resource Availability
3. Staffing management plan
|1. General management skills2. Training
3. Team-building activities
4. Ground rules
6. Recognition and rewards
|1. Team Performance assessment|
|Manage Project Team||Assigning the tasks to the team member, Tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, solving the conflicts among the team members, appraises team member performance and coordinating changes to enhance the project performance||1. Organizational Process Assets2. Project Staff Assignments
3. Roles and responsibilities
4. Project Organization charts
5. Staffing management plan
6. Team Performance assessment
7. Work Performance Information
8. Performance Reports
|1. Observation and conversation2. Project performance appraisals
3. Conflict management
4. Issue log
|1. Requested Changes2. Recommended Corrective Actions
3. Recommended Preventive Actions
4. Organization process assets (updates)
6. Project management plan (updates)
Project management team is a subset of the project team and is responsible for project management activities. Can be divided into administrative and behavioral decisions
I/P to HR Planning
Enterprise Environmental Factors – (I/P to HR Planning)
- Organizational (which departments, their working arrangements, relationships)
- Technical (Disciplines and Specialties needed)
- Interpersonal (Formal or informal reporting relationships, culture and language differences etc)
- Logistical (How much distance)
- Political (Individual goals and agendas)
Constrains – Organizational Structure, Collective bargaining agreements, Economic Conditions.
Collective bargaining agreements: Contractual agreements with unions or other employee groups can require certain roles or reporting relationships.
Organizational process assets– templates and Checklists
PMP: Activity Resource Requirement
Organizational Charts and position description– Hierarchical, Matrix based and Text Oriented. Some assignments are in risk, quality or communication plan. To ensure each work package has clear owner and each member has clear understanding of their R&R.
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) – A depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate work packages to organization units.
RBS – Resource Break Down Structure is an hierarchical chart which shows break down of project by resource types. RBS is helpful in tracking project costs, aligned with organizations accounting system, can contain categories other than human resources.
RAM (Matrix based also called table) – Responsibility assignment Matrix, can be developed at various levels. RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consult and Inform). Show who does what (x=person, y=phase). The most important feature of the RAM is the participatory development process involving all stakeholders
Text oriented more detailed include responsibilities, authority, competencies and qualification also known as position description and “Role responsibility authority forms”.
Networking: Informal interaction including proactive correspondence, luncheon etc. Concentrated Networking is useful at the beginning of the project. Interpersonal Skills – Are also known as soft skills
O/P of HR Planning
Roles and Responsibilities Role, Authority, Responsibility and competency
Staff Management Plan – Describes when and how human resource requirements will be met. SMP can be updated because of promotions, retirements, illness, performance issues and changing workloads. SMP contents:
- 1. Staff acquisition – internal or external or contract, same location or different, Cost etc
- 2. Timetable – Resource histogram is prepared, bars beyond the maximum available hours identify need for resource leveling strategy.
- 3. Release criteria – Morale is improved if transitions are already planned.
- 4. Training Needs
- 5. Recognition and rewards
- 6. Compliance – With Government regulations
- 7. Safety
Project Organization Chart
Acquire Project team: improves the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance. Includes improving skill and feeling of trust and cohesiveness.
I/P : EE factors (availability, ability, experience, Interest, cost), OP assets, R&R, Project Org Chart, Staffing Mgmt Plan.
TT: Pre-assignment, Negotiation, Acquisition, Virtual teams
O/P: Project Staff Assignments, resource availability, SMP (update)
* Before creating final schedule “resource availability” has to be confirmed.
Develop Project Team: involves tacking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues and coordinating changes to enhance project performance.
I/P : Project staff assignment, staffing management plan, resource availability
TT: General Mgmt Skills (Soft Skill), Training, Team Building activities, Ground rules, Co-location, R&R
O/P: Team Performance Assessment: Project team effectiveness is evaluated.
Manage Project Team: involves tracking team member performance providing feedback, resolving issues and coordinating the changes to enhance project performance. Project management team observes team behavior, manages conflict, resolves issues and coordinating changes to enhance project performance. Management of Project teams is complicated in Matrix organization.
I/P: OP asset, Project Staff Assignments, R&R, Org Charts, Staff MP, Team Performance Assessment (for project teams), Work Performance Information (for team member), Performance Reports (for projects).
TT: Observation and conversation, Project performance appraisals, conflict management (team members initially responsible to resolve and later manager), Issue log.
O/P: Inputs to org performance appraisal, LLs,
Halo Effect – Tendency to rate high or low on all the factors due to the impression of a high or low rating on some specific factor.
Five Stages of Team Development – Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning
Kickoff Meeting – Indirect Method to start team development. It should answer 1.Why am I here? 2.Who are you and your expectations of me? 3. What is this team going to do? 4.How is the team going to do this work? 5.How do I fit into all this?
Lessons Learned from Manage Project Team –
- Project organization charts, positions and Staff MP
- Ground rules, conflict management techniques and recognitions
- Procedures for Virtual teams, co-location, training and team building
- Special skills and competencies by team members discovered
- Issues and solutions
Role of Sponsor
- During initiation: to provide financial resource, provide requirements, SOW, info for Prelim project scope statement, dictates milestone, issue project charter, set priority between projects and triple constraints,
- Act as a protector of the project
- During planning: May review WBS, supply initial risks, determine reporting needs, provide expert judgment, approve PMP
- During project executing and M&C: approve changes to project charter, enforce quality policy, resolve conflict beyond PM, help evaluate tradeoffs between crashing, fast tracking and re-estimate, clarify scope questions, approve or reject changes
- provide formal acceptance of deliverables (if he is a customer)
Role Team member: completes the work in addition involve in determining WBS, estimates and its completion and deviation from PMP.
Role of functional manager: individual who manages and owns the resources in a specific department and directs the technical work. Approves PMP and final schedule, assigns resources, assist with team member performance.
Role of Project manager: Is in charge of the project not necessarily of the resources. May be technical expert, leads and direct project plan development, determine and deliver quality level, create change control system, maintains control over the project, accountable for project success and failure, integrates project components into a cohesive whole.
|Autocratic||PM makes decision without soliciting information from team|
|Consultative||Intensive information solicited; PM makes decision|
|Consensus||Team makes decision; open discussion and information gathering by team|
|Directing||Telling other what to do|
|Facilitating||Coordinating the input of others|
|Supporting||Providing assistance along the way|
Linear Responsibility Chart (LRC) – identifying responsibility, assignments by work packages and action required. Also referred to as RAM.
Resources Histogram – often part of Staffing Management Plan; shows resource usage (eg staff hours) per time period (eg week, month) of a specific job function.
|Types of Power|
|Legitimate (Formal)||Derived from formal position|
|Penalty (Coercive)||Predicated on fear|
|Reward||Involves positive reinforcement and ability to award something of valueProject often needs their own rewards system to affect employee performance. Used correctly, bring the team’s goals and objectives in line with each other and with the project.|
|Expert||Held in esteem because of special knowledge or skill (requires time). Earned of our own.|
|Referent||Ability to influence others through charisma, personality, etc.|
The best forms of power are generally Reward and Expert. Form of power by position are reward, penalty and formal
Reasons of Conflicts in Order of Frequency – 1. Schedule 2. Project Priorities 3. Resources 4. Technical Opinions 5. Administrative Procedures 6. Cost 7. Personality
|Avoidance/Withdrawal (Ignoring)||At least one party withdraws from conflict. Cool off period, could be lose/loseRetreating from actual or potential disagreement; delaying (e.g. “Just document the problem”)|
|Competition/Forcing||Exerting one’s viewpoint; a last resort [win/lose] (e.g. “Call the customer and demand that you receive the approval today.”|
|Compromising||Bargaining and searching for solutions; neither party wins but each gain some satisfaction. [Lose-Lose Situation] this is very rarely a good way to resolve technical issues. Definite solution is achieved in the end|
|Accommodation||Opposite of Competition. One party meets other party need at expense of his own. Lose/Win|
|Collaborating||Involves incorporating multiple ideas and viewpoints from people with different perspectives and offers a good opportunity to learn from others (good when project is too important to be compromised) Win/Win Best Strategy|
|**Smoothing||De-emphasize differences and emphasize commonalities; friendly but avoids solving root causes; delaying (eg. Manager says an issue is valid but doesn’t think it will be a big problem later)|
|**Problem Solving / Confrontation||Address conflict directly in problem solving mode [win/win]|
|3 steps of problem solving:
|Motivational Theory: Content & Process TheoriesContent: “What” energizes, directs behavior –
Process: “How” personal factors influence behavior
Other Motivational Theories:
Behaviorism – people behavior can be modified through manipulation of rewards and punishments
Expectancy Theory – Motivation is explained in terms of expectations that people have about (1) their ability to perform effectively on the job, (2) the rewards they might obtain if they do perform effectively and (3) the value or degree of satisfaction they anticipate from those rewards.
McGregor – Theory X (employee lack ambition) and Theory Y (org structure are responsible for motivation)
Tannenabaum-Schmidt model – Continuum of leadership styles between the autocratic and participative styles
Blake and Mouton – ref to managerial grid (Concern for People Vs Concern for Production), whereas 1,1 is laissez faire mgmnt, 1,9 is Country Club mgmnt, 9,1 is Task oriented mgmnt, 5,5 is Compromise mgmnt and 9,9 is team mgmnt.
Forms of Organization
|Functional||A hierarchical organization where each employee has one clear superior, staff are Grouped people by areas of specialization, and managed by a person with expertise in that area. Project manager has no formal authority of resources and must rely on informal power structure and his own interpersonal skills to obtain resource commitments from functional managers.|
|Project Expeditor||Retains functional but adds a Project Expeditor who serves as a communications link and coordinator for the project across functional units|
|Project Coordinator||Similar to Project Expeditor except the Coordinator reports to a higher level manager and has some authority to assign work|
|Weak Matrix||Vertical functional lines of authority maintained with a relatively permanent horizontal structure containing managers for various projects. Balance of power leans toward the Functional Manager. Can cause a project to fall behind because functional managers are pulling resources away to perform non-project related tasks. The Project Manager may be able to make resource decision on his own but not technical decision.|
|Strong Matrix||Same as Weak except that the balance of power leans towards the Project Manager|
|Projectized||A separate, vertical structure is established for each project. All the project team members report directly and solely to the project manager.|
|**Memorize PMBOK “Organizational Structure Influence on Projects”Team building is most difficult in a matrix organization. Its main purpose is to improve team performance.
Team development is based on the individual development of each member.
Resource calendar – identifies period when resource is working through the year.
Performance Appraisals/Assessment – Project Manager will collect information from team member’s supervisors when project performance appraisals are completed. Team Performance assessment is done by the PM in order to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of team.
Arbitration – The hearing and resolution of a dispute performed by a neutral party.
Perquisites – Giving Special rewards like corner office, parking space.
Fringe Benefits – Standard benefits given to all employees.