|Knowledge Areas||Major Processes||Primary Inputs||Tools & Techniques||Primary Outputs|
|Communications Planning||Determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders||1. Enterprise Environmental Factors
2. Organizational Process Assets
3. Project Scope Statement
4. Project management plan
||1. Communication management plan|
|Information Distribution||Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner||1. Communication management plan||1. Communication skills
2. Information gathering and retrieval systems
3. Information distribution methods
4. Lessons learned Process
|1. Organizational Process Assets (updates)
2. Requested Changes
|Performance Reporting||Collecting and distributing performance information. This includes Status reporting, progress measurement and forecasting||1. Work Performance Information
2. Performance Measurements
3. Forecasted completion
4. Quality control measurements
5. Project management plan
Performance measurement baseline
6. Approved Change requests
|1. Information presentation tools
2. Performance information gathering and compilation
3. Status review meetings
4. Time reporting systems
5. Cost reporting systems
|1. Performance reports
3. Requested Changes
4. Recommended Corrective Actions
5. Organizational Process Assets (updates)
|Manage Stakeholders||Managing communications to satisfy the requirements of and resolve issues with project stakeholders.||1. Communications management plan
2. Organizational Process Assets
|1. Communications Methods
2. Issue Logs
|1. Resolved Issues
2. Approves Change Requests
3. Approved corrective actions
4. Organizational Process Assets (updates)
5. Project management plan (updates)
Communications Planning—determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders: who needs what information, when they will need it, and how it will be given to them. It is often tightly linked with enterprise environmental factors and organizational influences. It is required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and disposition of project information.
- Communication planning: determining the info and comm. needs of the project stakeholders
- Information distribution: making needed info available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
- Performance reporting: collecting and distributing performance information, including status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting
- Manage Stakeholders: managing communication to satisfy the requirements of and resolve issues with project stakeholders.
Art of Communications – Includes Sender-receiver Models, Choice of Media, Writing Style, Presentation techniques and Meeting Management Techniques.
Communication planning: determines who needs what, when, how and by whom.
EE Factors, Org Process assets, Project Scope statement, PMP (constraint and assumptions)
Comm requirement Analysis: info required on: org chart, pjt org and stakeholder resp relationship, departments in org, logistic of how many channels, int-ext comm need,
Communications Technology – factors that affect the project include Urgency of the need for information, Availability of technology, Expected Project Staffing, Length of the Project and Project Environment.
CMP – Contains stakeholder communication requirements, information format, receiver, content, detail level, person responsible, methods or technologies, frequency and time of communication, methods for CMP updates, escalation process & Glossary of common terms. Can also include guideline for project status meetings, email etc. basically documents how one control and manage communication.
Information distribution: includes implementing the CMP as well as responding to unexpected RFI.
Communication skills: Written and oral, listening and speaking; Internal and ext; Formal Vs informal; vertical Vs horizontal (with peers).
Information gathering and retrieval system:
Infor distribution methods: Project meetings; electronic comm and conf tool (email, fax); electronic tool.
LLs: it can be good team building exercise. PMs are professionally obligated to hold LL session particularly if project yielded less than desirable results.
O/P: LL dox, Project Records, Project reports (DSRs, issue logs, closure reports), Requested Change
Performance reporting – Involves collection of all baseline data and distribution of performance report to stakeholders. Generally on Scope, Quality, Schedule and Cost. But may include information on Risk and Procurement. right definition is “Collecting and Distributing performance information in terms of status reports, progress measurement reports and forecasting reports. It is a control feature and is done during control and project closure phase.
I/T: Work performance info, performance measurements, forecasted completion, quality control measurements, baselines, deliverables.
TT: info presentation tools, performance info gathering and compilation, Status review meetings, time reporting system, cost reporting system.
O/P: Performance reports, forecasts, recomm CA, changes, LL update to OPA.
Manage Stakeholder: refers to managing comm. To satisfy the needs of and resolve issues with project stakeholders. Ensure persons to operate synergistically and limits disruption with stakeholders.
I/P: CMP, OPA
TT: Communication Methods (face to face, email), Issue log (that can be used to document and monitor the resolution of issues, owner is assigned and target date is given)
O/P: resolved issues, approved CRs, CA
Major responsibility of project expeditor is communication management.
Team Meetings – periodic team meetings is the most effective way to accelerate the project integration process.
Performance Reviews – meetings held to assess status and/or progress. The main objective of a performance review is to identify performance successes or failures, progress with respect to the contract statement of work.
|Communicator||The originator of the message|
|Message||Thoughts, feelings, or ideas reduced to “code” that is understood by both sender and receiver|
|Medium||The vehicle or method used to convey the message|
|Recipient||The person for whom the message is intended|
|[Sender] — Encoding à Transmission à Decoding — [Receiver] à Feedback|
Communications Channels = (n2– n)/2 or n(n-1)/2
…the fact that two team members are working “directly” together does not reduce the number of communication channels.
Tight Matrix – all team members allocated in a single office space
A variance is considered to be significant if it jeopardizes project objectives.
|Types of Communications|
|Formal Written||Project Charter, Management Plan, complex problem, change contract, clarifying work package, requesting resource, poor performance notice – Second (this is the best type of communication method to use when there are cultural differences and distance between team members)|
|Informal Written||Notes, memos, scheduling meeting, email,|
|Formal Verbal||Presentations, conducting bidder conference|
|Informal Verbal||Conversations, discover root cause, poor performance notice- first|
|Note: 55% of communications is non-verbal (it is the most important aspect of a conversation)|
|90% of Project Manager’s time is spent acquiring and communicating information|
|Paralingual: Pitch and tone of voice also helps to convey a message.|
|Everything we do in contract environment is more formal than what we do in other project activities.|
|Objectives of a Kickoff Meeting|
|Get to know each other|
|Set team goals and objectives|
|Review project status|
|Review project plans|
|Identify problem areas|
|Establish responsibilities and accountabilities|
|Barriers to Communications (which lead to conflict)|
|Lack of clear communication channels|
|Physical or temporal distance|
|Difficulties with technical language|
|Distracting environmental factors|
The most likely results of communication blocker and miscommunication as a whole is conflict.
|Building Effective Team Communications|
|Be an effective communicator|
|Be a communications expeditor|
|Avoid communication blockers|
|Use a “tight matrix” (single office space)|
|Make meetings effective (meeting during execution is the best format to communicate)|
|Authoritarian||Lets individuals know what is expected of them|
|Combative||Eager to fight or be disagreeable over any situation|
|Conciliatory||Friendly and agreeable|
|Disruptive||Tends to disrupt unity and cause disorder|
|Ethical||Honest and sincere|
|Facilitating||Does not interfere with day-to-day tasks, but is available for help and guidance when needed|
|Intimidating||Reprimands employees for the sake of a “tough guy” image|
|Judicial||Applies sound judgment|
|Promotional||Cultivates team spirit; rewards good work; encourages subordinates to realize their full potential|
|Secretive||Not open or outgoing in speech, activity, or purpose|
|Leading||Establishing direction, aligning people, and motivating and inspiring|
|Communicating||The exchange of information in a variety of dimensions|
|Negotiating||Conferring with others in order to come to terms or reach an agreement|
|Problem Solving||A combination of problem definition and decision making|
|Influencing the Organization||The ability to get things done based on an understanding or the formal and informal structures of the organization|
|Kind of Performance report
WBS – Can be effective tool for communicating in a situation internal and external to the project.
Risk response strategy should be communicated.
Communication in Contract – Everything we do is more formal communication in contract environment.